scientific references

Chainy Root

Name: Chaney Root, Chainy Root

Scientific Name: Similax Balbisiana

Other Names: Chainey Winder, Prickly Green Brier, Saw Brier, Chaney Vine

Properties: Aphrodisiac, Tonic, Hepatic, Analgesic, Alterative

Body Parts Affected: Anemia, Blood Cleanser, Syphilis, Arthritis, Body Tonic, Skin

Uses: Tonic Decoction – Root, Blood Cleanser, Syphilis, Arthritis, Fatigue, Overall Body Tonic, Neutralizes Acids, All Skin Conditions, Increases Blood Cells (red), Tonic, general pain, strengthens back

History/Tradition: This important root, often collected in the woodlands of Jamaica, is an important ingredient in “Roots” tonics. It is boiled with other herbs and is good for men, giving them a “strong back”, increasing potency and acting as an aphrodisiac. It is said to be highly nutritious in iron and minerals, especially when boiled with Sarsaparilla and other roots. To stop internal hemorrhaging (as occurs after childbirth or during menstruation), a handful of Chaney root is boiled with 3 cloves of garlic and 3 unopened red hibiscus flowers for 10 minutes; the cooled mixture is taken in sips throughout the day.

Benefits: This plant is high in iron content. This makes it excellent for building up the blood, especially in cases of anemia or low blood count. Persons suffering from pain can gain relief by using Chaney root. It is useful for skin problems. It is a well-known aphrodisiac and persons with low sex drive or impotence are benefited by using this herb.

Other Species: Smilax Havanensis

Family Name: Similacaceae

Family Member: Similax Havanensis

Strong Back

Name: Strong Back Root

Scientific Name: Cuphea Parsonsia

Other Names: Iron Shrule, Manzanilla De America, Yerba Buena, Cimarrona, The Savane, Yerba San Martin

Properties: Aphrodisiac, Emmenagogue, Febrifuge, Soporific Body Parts Affected: Back Muscle, Spine, Reproductive Organs, Kidney Ailments, Impotence

Uses: Strengthens Back Muscle, Spine & Reproductive Organs, Muscle Soreness, Kidney Ailments, Impotence, Asthma, Taken as a soporific to escape pain, potent emmenagogue, Relieves Coughs, bronchitis, rheumatism, taking as a febrifuge, pulmonary ailments, inflamed eyes, Blood purging

History/Tradition: For a weak back drink a little as tea each day. To induce sleep in case of pain, make a tea boiled with “wild pinder” and “sheckel-weed”. The myal man adds a few drops of nitre

Benefits: Strong Back Root is a tonic that tones the body. It is effective in strengthening the back, the muscles and reproductive organs. It relieves impotence. It is beneficial to persons suffering from respiratory ailments, as well as, those suffering from pains. It also cleanses the blood and is useful with kidney and pulmonary problems. Women too gain relief from menstrual pains when they use this herb. As a bath, it can treat eye inflammations and bodily aches.


Noni has been found useful in treatments of a wide variety of health problems. This is mainly due to the way Noni is thought to effect the body.

Although the jury is still out on precisely what makes Noni work, a number of clinical studies done by Dr. R.M. Heinicke of the University of Hawaii have suggested a link between this fruit and xeronine. Xeronine is a rather small alkaloid occurring in virtually all healthy cells of plants, animals and microorganisms. Without xeronine life would cease.

Why is xeronine so important to cellular health? Testing done on this vital alkaloid suggests that xeronine regulates the shape and rigidity of specific proteins. As proteins have very different functions, a large range of physiological responses are caused by this one simple drug. If a disease is caused specifically by a lack of xeronine supplementation will alleviate the symptoms of the problem.

Dr. Heinicke explains,”I believe that each tissue has cells which contain proteins, which in turn have receptor sites for the absorption of xeronine. Certain of these proteins are the inert forms of enzymes which require absorbed xeronine to become active…..Since Noni is a potential source of this alkaloid [xeronine], Noni juice can be a valuable herbal remedy.”


The effect of xeronine on the body at cellular level assists the removal of dead tissue safely and quickly from burns. Hence Noni appears to be an effective treatment for burns.


Some proteins become potential receptor sites for hormones after they react with xeronine. Hence, Noni’s ability to make a person generally feel well is no doubt due to the xeronine converting brain receptor proteins into active sites for the absorption of endorphin.


Proteins are also responsible for the forming of pores though membranes in the intestines. The absorption of xeronine here can beneficially change the shape of these pores, assessing the passage of molecules and thereby improving digestion.

Other conditions that may respond favorably to Noni treatments include high blood pressure, menstrual cramps, arthritis, gastric ulcers, sprains and injuries, depression, senility, poor digestion, artherosclerosis, blood vessel problems, drug addiction and general pain relief.

In a study published in 1949 in “Pacific Science”, Noni products were suggested as having moderate antibacterial properties against the bacteria M. pyrogenes, E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa.

Further, Dr. Isabella Abbott G.P. of the University of Hawaii says that there are possibly many other uses for Noni. Speaking of the recent popularity of the herb, she said,”they use it for diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer…”

Some people have reported success in using Noni to treat breast cancer and eye problems.

Dr. Joseph Betz, a research chemist with the FDA’s Division of Natural Products Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition says about Noni,”Morinda Citrifolia has been tested for a number of biological activities in animal and anti microbial studies.”

He reports that the dried fruit has a smooth muscle stimulatory activity and a histaminergic effect. The root was also reported as possessing analgesic and tranquilizing activity.

A report out of Keio University and The Institute of Biomedical Sciences in Japan (“Cancer Letters”, September 30, 1993 issue) claimed that a compound called damnacanthal had been isolated from the Noni root which induced normal morphology and cytoskeletal structure in K-ras-NRK cancer cells.

Noni has also proved to be an effective antioxidant. The photo nutrients in Noni promote cell nourishment and protection from free radicals that cause cell break down. Additionally, Noni contains selenium, one of the best antioxidant compounds known.

Other health problems thought to receive substantial help from Noni are:

AIDS; Allergies; Athlete’s foot; Autoimmune system dysfunction;, Broken bones; Cataracts; Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Chemical sensitivity; Colitis; Comas; Colds; Constipation; Coughing; Croup; Cysts; Diaper rash; Double vision; Dry skin spots; Eczema; Energy; Fevers; Gout; Headache; Heart disease; Hepatitis; Herniated disk; Hyperkeratosis; Infections; Insomnia; Irregular heartbeat; Kidney cancer; Knee pain; Liver cancer; Macular degeneration; Migraine; Multiple Sclerosis; Muscle pain; Nervous system damage; Neurological disorder; Pre-menstrual syndrome; Prostate cancer; Psoriasis; RSDS; Sinus; Sleep; Spinal cord problems; Stroke; Sunburn; T-cell count; Tumors; Varicose veins; and yeast rash.

How do I most effectively use it?

Noni is a safe herb to take in normally recommended dosages. However it is recommended that pregnant or nursing mothers should consult their health professional before taking Noni.

Noni is best consumed on an empty stomach. This enables a quicker passage through the stomach and into the intestines before stomach acid can destroy the enzyme that liberates the xeronine

Taste is often a factor. Noni juice can taste awful, but the more modern freeze-dried techniques have perfected methods of providing the Noni in a relatively tasteless powder capsule form.

The world’s foremost expert on Noni, Dr. Ralph Heinicke recommends that the herbal preparations containing Noni be made from the light green, semi-ripe fruit rather than the ripe, whitish fruit. “The green fruit has more of the potentially valuable components”, he explains.

It is not possible to produce a commercially acceptable Noni juice product without adding large quantities of water, flavoring and preservative. Pure Noni juice is a particularly foul smelling and tasting brew.

“None of my colleagues would touch the untreated juice”, writes Dr. Heinicke. “Even after I had removed most of the disagreeable flavor from the juice, my colleagues still found it unfit to drink.”

Typical Noni juice products are 88% water content, and so you must drink literally gallons of juice to get the same benefits as other more concentrated forms.

The popular belief that the only acceptable form of Noni supplement is in liquid juice are probably due to a misconception put forward for commercial reasons.

Acclaimed Noni researcher Rita Elkins M.H. writes, “The best supplementation of Noni is a freeze-dried, powdered form. This freeze-drying process removes only the water without damaging any of this plant’s vital enzymes.”

There are other methods of processing Noni.

Thermal processing and dehydration techniques both use methods employing using high heat (110 degrees F) which can damage the active ingredients in the Noni. Thermal processing is most common in liquid preparations while dehydration processing usually ends up as capsules.

Air drying has found to be a way around the problems of excessive heat, but opens up other difficulties associated with quality control in commercial quantities.

Your use of Noni

Whoever we are and wherever we may live, we cannot afford to ignore the significant benefits that Noni may offer to our every day health.

Not just for specific ailments but for general well being, as well as preventative health management, Noni is worth experiencing.

Truly that old saying may be revamped in light of what is known about this age old herb:

“An ounce of Noni is worth a pound of cure!”


Vervain  is an attractive perennial herbaceous plants in the Verbenaceae . The majority of the species are common in the New World from Canada south to southern Chile , but some native in the Old World , mainly in Europe. A perennial plant with pointed leaves are usually opposite, simple and the flowers are tiny, white, pink, purple or blue, with five petals, and borne in dense spikes.

The leaves and roots of this perennial are useful alternative medicine taken as an abortifacient, antidiarrheal, analgesic, anthelmintic, antiperiodic, astringent,sedative, diaphoretic, emetic, expectorant, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary.This herbaceous plants has been used in herbal medicine to cure nervous disorders and insomnia.It is useful to cure fevers, ulcers, scrofula, gravel,pleurisy,ebb pain in the bowels and expelling worms.

The upper parts of the vervain are taken an effective nerve tonic, liver stimulant, urinary cleanser and fever remedy. Historically,they are also used to increase milk flow and can be taken during labour to enhance contractions. Traditionally, the plant was thought to be a cure-all among medicinal plants and the genus name is Latin for “sacred plant.”As a herbal poultice it is good in headache & rheumatism.

Vervain is used to treat the liver related problems & cure exhaustion, fatigue, fever, insomnia, asthma, post-natal depression, as well as decrease painful or irregular menses.


Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a well-known culinary herb. Dried rosemary leaves are a popular seasoning for food… adding flavour to soups, stews, meat and fish.

Applied to the skin, rosemary essential oil helps strengthen the capillaries and has a rejuvenating effect. For this reason, rosemary is a common ingredient used in many cosmetics, including skin toners, creams, soaps and hair products.

However, beyond being a flavouring-enhancer for certain foods and its use in cosmetics, you may not be aware that rosemary extract has a long history of medicinal uses too. It has been used to treat a wide range of ailments, including stomach upsets, digestive disorders and headaches.

Recent research is now revealing even more benefits attached to this remarkable herb, including its ability to help prevent cancer and age-related skin damage, boost the functioning of the liver and act as a mild diuretic to help reduce swelling.

Two of the most important ingredients in rosemary, which are thought to be largely responsible for many of these therapeutic actions, are caffeic acid and rosemarinic acid – both are potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.

These two natural acids are effective at reducing inflammation which may contribute to asthma, liver disease and heart disease.

Rosemary is proving an important defence against cancer

The antioxidants contained in rosemary help to protect your body’s cells from damage by free radicals. They include monoterpenes, phenolic diterpenes and flavonoids, which are renowned for their ability to slow down the production of free radicals.

It is also a rich source of vitamin E (alpha tocopherol), another potent antioxidant, which contributes to its free radical fighting powers further still.

DNA is your genetic blueprint, and it is particularly prone to injury from free radicals. Left unchecked, this damage can eventually lead to cells proliferating out of control, which greatly increases the risk of cancer.

By blocking oestrogen, rosemary helps prevent breast cancer

It is well known that an imbalance of oestrogen hormones in women can contribute to breast cancer. Several conventional drugs such as Tamoxifen are aimed at blocking the effects of oestrogen to help reduce this risk. However, Tamoxifen can cause a range of unpleasant side effects, including hot flushes, vaginal bleeding, headaches and nausea.

Fortunately, rosemary offers a safe and natural alternative treatment. Dr Zhu and colleagues from the Department of Chemical Biology,

State University of New Jersey in the US, found that a 2 per cent concentration of rosemary extract given for three weeks was able to significantly inactivate excess oestrogen. Researchers believe that it works by stimulating liver enzymes, which inactivate oestrogen hormones like oestrone and oestradiol.

Rosemary helps minimize the effects of ageing on your skin.  As mentioned earlier, one of the traditional uses of rosemary is as a cosmetic. Recent research findings have now confirmed the skin-protective benefits it possesses.

According to researchers working at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Catania, in Italy, rosemary extract helps protect the individual components of skin cells, which may prevent age-related skin damage such as wrinkles.

In a follow-up study the Italian researchers found that rosemary extract is able to exert even greater benefits. In particular, it was shown to safeguard a protective protein called HSP70. The role of this protein is to reduce damage caused by stress, free radicals and other toxins on the skin.

Rosemary disarms harmful toxins and flushes them from your body.

Another benefit rosemary has been shown to possess is an ability to inactivate toxins and then eliminate them from your liver, before they can inflict any serious damage.

French scientists from the National Institute of Agronomic Research in Dijon, found that rosemary extract encouraged detoxifying enzymes – including cytochrome P450, glutathione transferase and quinone reductase – to flush harmful toxins from the liver.

In effect, rosemary stimulates your liver to work more efficiently, which helps you feel more healthy and energetic.

2 Responses to “scientific references”

  1. kemar tucker Says:

    Thanks for this amazing article, the information provided is of great quality.
    I a Currently studying herbal medicine at the university of Westminster London and want to learn more about Herbs use frequently in Caribbean medicine.
    Please can you direct me to any useful resource.


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